China-India Relations


Sino-Indian relations are the bilateral relations between China and India .

Sino-Indian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of India . There were some border disputes between the two countries, despite the friendly relationship between them. The modern relationship began in 1950 when India was among the first countries to end formal relations with the Republic of China (Taiwan), and recognized the People’s Republic of China as the legitimate government of mainland China. China and India are the two most populous countries and the fastest growing major economies in the world. The growth of diplomatic and economic influence increased the importance of their bilateral relations.

The cultural and economic relations between China and India go back to ancient times. The Silk Road not only served as a major trade route between India and China, but was also credited with facilitating the spread of Buddhism from India to East Asia. The growing Chinese opium trade during the 19th century with the British East India Company led to the outbreak of the First and Second Opium Wars. British-occupied India and China during World War II played a crucial role in halting the growth of Japan’s empire.

Contemporary relations between China and India have been characterized by border disputes, leading to three military conflicts: the Sino-Indian War in 1962, the Shola Incident in 1967, and the Sino-Indian Skirmish in 1987. The two countries clashed on the Doklam Plateau along the disputed Sino-Bhutan border in early 2017. The two countries have succeeded in rebuilding diplomatic and economic relations since the late 1980s. China became India’s largest trading partner in 2008, and the two countries expanded their strategic and military ties. There were some other areas of common interest apart from trade and commerce that the two countries had been cooperating on recently. “The two countries are currently cooperating on a range of international trade, climate change and reform of the global financial system, among other things, to advance mutual interest,” says Indian foreign policy researcher Rijul Karim Lashkar.

There are many hurdles that India and the People’s Republic of China have had to overcome, despite their growing economic and strategic ties. India faces a significant trade imbalance in favor of China. The two countries have failed to resolve their border dispute, and Indian media have repeatedly reported Chinese military incursions into Indian territory. The two countries have steadily built up military infrastructure along the border areas. India remains concerned about China’s strong bilateral strategic ties with Pakistan , while China has expressed concern about India’s military and economic activities in the disputed South China Sea .

In June 2012, China declared its position that “China-India relations” may be “the most important bilateral partnership of the century.” Wen Jiabao, Premier of China, and Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India, that month set a goal of increasing bilateral trade between the two countries to US$100 billion by 2015.

Bilateral trade between China and India reached US$89.6 billion in fiscal year 2017-18, with the trade deficit widening to US$62.9 billion in favor of China. Bilateral trade between India and China amounted to US$84.5 billion in 2017. This figure excludes bilateral trade between India and Hong Kong, which amounted to another US$34 billion.

23% of Indians view China positively and 47% view it negatively, while 27% of Chinese view India positively and 35% view it negatively, according to a poll conducted by BBC Worldwide in 2014. 2014. A Pew Research Center survey in 2014 showed that 72% of Indians were concerned that territorial disputes between China and neighboring countries would lead to military conflict.

China’s President, Xi Jinping , was one of the top world leaders to visit New Delhi after Narendra Modi took over as India’s prime minister in 2014. India’s subsequent insistence on raising the South China Sea issue in various multilateral forums did not help the relationship get started again. Skepticism by the Indian government and media alike. In 2020, seventy celebratory events will be held to mark the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations between India and China, and many more are planned by both of them.

Geographic overview

China is separated from India by the Himalayas . Today China and India share borders with Nepal and Bhutan as buffer states. Parts of the disputed Kashmir region claimed by India are claimed and administered by either Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit and Baltistan) or the People’s Republic of China (Aksai Chin). The government of Pakistan on its maps shows Aksai Chin as mostly within China and describes the border as an “indefinite frontier”, while India views Aksai Chin as illegally occupied by the People’s Republic of China .

China and India also dispute most of Arunachal Pradesh. The two countries agreed to respect the Line of Actual Control.

Bilateral trade

According to paulsourcing, China is India’s largest trading partner. Chinese imports from India amounted to $16.4 billion or 0.8% of its total imports, and 4.2% of India’s total exports in 2014. The top ten commodities that India exports to China were:

Cotton: $3.2 billion.

Gems, precious metals and coins: $2.5 billion.

Copper: $2.3 billion.

Ores, slag, and ash: $1.3 billion.

Organic chemicals: $1.1 billion.

Salt, sulfur, stone, and cement: $958.7 million.

Machinery, engines, and pumps: $639.7 million.

Plastic: $499.7 million.

Electronic equipment: $440 million.

Raw hides excluding fur: $432.7 million.

Chinese exports to India amounted to $58.4 billion or 2.3% of its total exports, and 12.6% of India’s total imports in 2014. The top ten commodities exported by China to India were:

Electronic equipment: $16 billion.

Machinery, engines, and pumps: $9.8 billion.

Organic chemicals: $6.3 billion.

Fertilizers: $2.7 billion.

Iron and steel: $2.3 billion.

Plastic: $1.7 billion.

Iron or steel products: $1.4 billion.

Gems, precious metals, and currencies: $1.3 billion.

Ships and boats: $1.3 billion.

Medical and technical equipment: $1.2 billion.

Comparison between the two countries

This is a general and reference comparison for the two countries:

Comparison China India
Area (km2) 9.60 million 3.29 million
Number of population ( people ) 1.33 billion 1.35 billion [15]
Population density (n./km²) 138.54 410.33
Capital Beijing New Delhi
official language Standard Chinese language Hindi language , English language
the currency RMB Indian rupee
GDP (billion dollars) 12.24 trillion 2.60 trillion
GDP (purchasing power parity) in billion dollars 19.82 trillion 8.00 trillion
Nominal GDP per capita in US dollars 8.03 thousand 1.60 thousand
GDP per capita US$ 13.21 thousand 5.70 thousand
Human development index 0.728 0.609
International calling code +86 +91
Internet symbol .cn , .中国, .中國 .in ,, .भारत ‏ ‏,,
Time zone China time , UTC+08:00 UTC+05:30 , India time

China-India Relations

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